Thursday, 27 April 2017


Directions (1-6): Read the paragraphs given in each question and choose a suitable summary from the given options:

Q1. The liberal democracies of the west benefited from the end of the Soviet bloc, but it is hard to argue that low oil prices in the Arab and Muslim world led to much peace and stability. One safe observation today is that the slump in global oil prices has notably dimmed hopes that emerging powers might continue their growth and modernization, simultaneously becoming solid stakeholders in a stable international order.
(a) The stagnating growth of emerging markets and conflict in the Middle East which is a disadvantage far outweighs the advantages accruing to the west from the oil price slump.
(b) Recessionary trends refuse to let up as growth in emerging markets remains sluggish limiting their ability to demand oil. Slow demand in turn has created problems for the Soviet bloc and the Arab world.
(c) The slump in oil prices has proved advantageous to the liberal West but has compounded the problems for the rest of the world resulting in conflict in the Arab world and deceleration in growth of emerging markets.
(d) The dismantling of the Soviet Bloc has helped liberal democracies in the west. This has been made possible through low global oil prices.
(e) None of the above is correct

Q2. Today we know much more about how and why HIV the virus that leads to AIDS has become a global pandemic. Unsurprisingly, sex workers unwillingly played a part. But no less important were the roles of trade, the collapse of colonialism, and 20th Century sociopolitical reform.
(a) Diseases do no assume epidemic proportions without the aid of sociopolitical and economic factors.
(b) Trade and commerce, among other factors, played an important role in the spread of the HIV virus which causes AIDS.
(c) The AIDS epidemic was also fanned by the decline of colonialism and trade and commerce along with social and political changes effected in the 20th century.
(d) The chief reason for the spread of the AIDS causing HIV virus was sex workers and post colonial reform measures of the 20th century.
(e) None of the above is correct

Q3. Surprisingly, it works. Repeating myself afterwards minus the cups I sound even more convincing about the specifics of my fish-and-chip dinner than I did the first time round. The cups device is just one of the many exercises taught in City Academy’s ‘How to Get Heard in Meetings’ course, which, while open to anyone, is being marketed as an especially female-friendly way to apply performance techniques to everyday scenarios. Women have long struggled to make themselves heard in the workplace. In 2014, Harvard Business Review reported that “we have consistently heard women say that they feel less effective in meetings than they do in other business situations. Some say that their voices are ignored or drowned out. Others tell us that they can’t find a way into the conversation … In fact, several men reported seeing a female colleague get rattled or remain silent even when she was the expert at the table.”
(a) Executives with poor communication skills often struggle to get themselves heard at meetings. Female executives have been noted to get rattled and drowned out at such meetings.
(b) Male executives in modern business organizations do not allow their female counterparts the space to voice their thoughts in discussions. This causes women executives to feel less effective in meetings.
(c) Women often struggle to make their points in official meetings perhaps because they are outnumbered by their male colleagues or ignored. Communication exercises have become a popular method to set right this state of affairs.
(d) Female executives usually opt for performance techniques to improve their communication skills at meetings.
(e) None of the above is correct

Q4. In a commentary, the Vatican daily Osservatore Romano said treatment of this kind towards religion “is not new” and stressed that religious figures have repeatedly condemned violence in the name of God. “Behind the deceptive flag of uncompromising secularism, the weekly is forgetting once more what religious leaders of every faith unceasingly repeat to reject violence in the name of religion using God to justify hatred is a genuine blasphemy, as pope Francis has said several times,” it said. The commentary added: “In Charlie Hebdo’s choice, there is the sad paradox of a world which is more and more sensitive about being politically correct, almost to the point of ridicule, yet does not wish to acknowledge or to respect believes’ faith in God, regardless of the religion.”
(a) Religion has recently been deemed the promoter of bloodshed because of the element of fanaticism without considering the ample examples of situations wherein religion has been the messiah of peace. Believers respect this power of God and religion, and this notion should be acknowledged.
(b) Religious leaders cite religion as the chief means of ensuring peace by evoking the name of God to stop violence. Yet the secular movement deceives people.
(c) We live in times where the greatest virtue among people is to be politically correct. Yet the media refuses to respect peoples’ faith in God.
(d) The Charlie Hebdo incident has revealed the potential of religion to turn into a divisive force which permits violence to curb dissent. However, religious leaders continue to reject violence in the name of God and label it blasphemy.
(e) None of the above is correct

Q5. University of Oregon’s Lundquist College of Business and his co-authors compared the effective tax rates paid by a sample of American firms between 2002 and 2011 with a measure of those companies’ CSR programmes compiled by MSCI, an index provider. It found that the companies which do the most CSR also make the most strenuous efforts to avoid paying tax – and that those which a high CSR score also spend more lobbying on tax. The most obvious explanation for this inverse relationship is hypocrisy. Surely CSR depends on the idea that firms have an obligation to society, not just to shareholders? And surely the most basic obligation to society is to pay the taxes that support the poor and vulnerable? Another explanation is that firms are not monoliths but collections of rival fiefs with different priorities. The department that oversees the CSR programmes, and thus has an interest in boosting their budgets, may never talk to those in the finance department who are paid to minimize the tax bill.
(a) A recent study by researchers at the University of Oregon has revealed that companies that do the most CSR also indulge in tax avoidance strategies, thereby exposing the hypocrisy of these corporate giants.
(b) A recent survey supports the public opinion that companies that do the most CSR also indulge heavily in aggressive tax planning to please shareholders. This state of affairs could be a result of double standards or lack of coordination in departmental goals.
(c) A recent study by researchers at the University of Oregon reveals an inverse relationship between expenditure on CSR and lobbying on tax. These findings are highly suggestive of conflicting interdepartmental goals in business firms and hypocrisy of the corporate class.
(d) The findings of recent research suggest that companies with high expenditure on CSR also engage in greater tax lobbying. This could result from double standards or conflicting interdepartmental goals.
(e) None of the above is correct

Q6. The concept of the modern, open democracy that embraces freedom, diversity and human rights, is under threat. We live in a time of conflict unlike any other. A war is underway that is not just being fought out on conventional battlefields among state powers, but on the internet and the streets of our towns and cities, as the citizens of Paris found to a shocking cost in November.
(a) The concept of modern society and freedom of speech are under threat due to the rise of modern forms of warfare.
(b) The ideals of democracy are at war with an emerging threat. Unlike previous wars, this war is not confined to secluded battlefields and has spread over the internet and our homes.
(c) Cybercrimes have now taken precedence over conventional methods of warfare. This has restricted freedom and liberty.
(d) Terrorism, armed with modern technology and modern forms of warfare, has emerged as the greatest threat to the ideals of liberty.
(e) None of the above is correct

Directions (7-15): In each question below, the word at the top of the question is used in four different ways. Choose the option in which the usage of the word is INCORRECT or INAPPROPRIATE.

(a) The wind finally dissipated the smoke.
(b) The industrious people from Gujarat are dissipated over the whole of India.
(c) The young sometimes seem to dissipate their energy in useless pursuits.
(d) The dark clouds which threatened rain finally dissipated.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) She evinced her approval by smiling.
(b) The man who was caught stealing did not evince any remorse.
(c) The proposal evinced a storm of protest from the members.
(d) She did not evince the least surprise at seeing me there.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) He acted as a decoy to draw the dogs’ attention away from the children.
(b) The policewoman acted as a decoy when the police were trying to catch the murderer.
(c) The bird-trap was empty as he had caught a decoy, and he had to kill it.
(d) They used flares to decoy enemy missiles.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) She feigned illness to avoid going to the party.
(b) The politician feigned the attention of his listeners to non-controversial issues.
(c) On the phone, he feigned his sister’s voice and said that he was not at home.
(d) She introduced me as her cousin, and everyone feigned to believe it.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) They were indicted for conspiracy and spent a year in jail.
(b) In Bosnia, US troops have usually declined to take part in the arrest of indicted war criminals.
(c) Last week, he was indicted by a grand jury.
(d) The critics have the right to praise or indict a literary work.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) Where would American cinema be without the car ramble or the road movie?
(b) Avoid long rambling sentences, jargon or unexplained acronyms.
(c) We have tours to suit all levels of ability from a gentle ramble to a Himalayan expedition.
(d) The internet forum gives you an opportunity to ramble on a bit.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) Electric cars are a nice idea, but they won’t work for mass transit or cargo.
(b) Passengers holding a direct airside transit visa will not be able to pass through immigration control.
(c) The transit of the property into the parties’ joint names was irrelevant.
(d) Mumbai and Delhi are building the infrastructure for rapid transit systems.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) The regulations imposed in the West to placate environmental opposition to GM foods effectively prevent the Third World from developing GM foods.
(b) The facts are incorrect and they have placated members of all political parties across the country.
(c) However, his statement did little to placate the unions who say that even negotiations cannot help in this matter.
(d) The government has a greater imperative to placate the farming lobby than protecting wildlife because of its political leverage.
(e) All sentences are correct.

(a) People have decided to ask the King to abdicate in favour of his son.
(b) We cannot abdicate the responsibility to deal with these acts in the correct manner.
(c) Our people have opted for democracy as a way of life from which we will not abdicate.
(d) People wonder whether computer programmes will abdicate the role of the human brain.
(e) All sentences are correct.


S1. Ans.(c)
Sol. The passage does not mention anything about the disadvantages outweighing the advantages. This is an additional conclusion. (b) deviates from the passage. (c) is the main idea of the passage. (d) does not capture the essence of the passage.

S2. Ans.(c)
Sol. (a) is too general. (b) is too narrow and does not include the other factors. (c) does not include the sex workers but covers all important reasons apart from sex workers. This is the main idea of the passage. (d) does not contain enough information.

S3. Ans.(c)
Sol. (a) is incorrect because it talks of executives with poor communication skills which is not the issue here. (b) is incorrect because it only considers the problem of females being ‘drowned out’ and not of their opinions being ignored. It also does not mention the communication techniques being taught to remedy that. (d) is wrong because it partially captures the essence of the text.

S4. Ans.(a)
Sol. (b) is incorrect because it takes not extreme a stance against secularism. (c) is incorrect because it deviates from the main idea and focuses primarily on political correctness. (d) is incorrect because Charlie Hebdo has not been mentioned in that context in the passage.

S5. Ans.(d)
Sol. (a) only mentions the hypocrisy of companies but not the other reason i.e. interdepartmental conflict. (b) talks about public opinion, however the passage does not mention public opinion anywhere. (c) states that there is an inverse relationship between spending on CSR and tax lobbying whereas the passage points to a direct relationship i.e. higher the CSR spending higher the tax lobbying. (d) captures the relationship between CSR expenditure and Tax avoidance correctly and also the two reasons for the same provided in the passage.

S6. Ans.(b)
Sol. According to the passage, freedom, diversity and human rights form the essence or concept of modern democracy. Certain forces, by threatening these ideals also threaten democracy. The passage also speaks of troubled times and that we are currently in a state of war against such forces, however this was is being fought in a new battleground, namely the internet and the streets of cities such as Paris.
(a) is incorrect because it cites forms of modern warfare as the chief problem. (b) best captures the essence of the passage. (c) is too specific and off the main idea. (d) talks about terrorism which can be inferred from the passage but has not been specifically mentioned. It also only mentions a threat to liberty whereas the ideals of democracy are much broader in scope.

S7. Ans.(b)
Sol. DISSIPATE-(with reference to a feeling or emotion) disappear or cause to disappear. The word DISSIPATE is incorrectly used in sentence B.

S8. Ans.(c)
Sol. EVINCE-reveal the presence of (a quality or feeling); indicate. The word ‘’evince’ is incorrectly used in option C.

S9. Ans.(c)
Sol. DECOY- lure or entice (a person or animal) away from their intended course, typically into a trap. According to the meaning of the word ‘decoy’, the usage in sentence C is incorrect.

S10. Ans.(b)
Sol. FEIGN-pretend to be affected by (a feeling, state, or injury). The word feign is incorrectly used in the sentence B.

S11. Ans.(d)
Sol. INDICT-formally accused of or charge with a crime. The word ‘indict’ is incorrectly used in option D.

S12. Ans.(a)
Sol. RAMBLE-talk or write at length in a confused or inconsequential way.
a walk taken for pleasure in the countryside. The word ‘ramble’ is incorrect in option A.

S13. Ans.(c)
Sol. TRANSIT-the action of passing through or across a place.
the carrying of people or things from one place to another. The word ‘transit’ is incorrect in sentence C.

S14. Ans.(b)
Sol. PLACATE-make (someone) less angry or hostile. The word ‘placate’ is incorrect in sentence B.

S15. Ans.(d)
Sol. ABDICATE-(of a monarch) renounce one's throne.

fail to fulfil or undertake (a responsibility or duty). ‘abdicate’ is incorrectly used in