Directions (1-5): In each of the following questions, a statement and five choices are given. Select from among the choices, the most logical complement and mark its number as your answer.
Q1. The flight of IT talent to foreign shores is causing Indian companies to move into shutdown mode.
(a) Software professionals in India feel that working abroad is more lucrative.
(b) Indian software professionals are considered as demigods.
(c) Immigrant Indians are the biggest IT group in the US.
(d) Due to the severe shortage of IT professionals, companies are failing to complete projects and are unable to sign contracts.
Q2. The owners of private educational institutions have conveniently stepped into the shoes of shrewd businessmen, due to the absence of government control over them.
(a) The importance of education in the development of society cannot be underestimated.
(b) The inability of government schools to educate the vast population resulted in the mushrooming of private institutions.
(c) The owners of private educational institutions are more interested in monetary gains than in imparting quality education.
(d) People generally believe that the standard of lower compared to private institutions.
(e) It is sad that education is slowly going into the hands of businessmen whose main concern is anything but quality in education.
Q3. More and more people from villages are giving up agricultural farming and migrating to cities.
(a) in search of alternative sources of employment as agriculture is mainly dependent on the mercy of nature.
(b) in search of better standards of living in cities.
(c) in search of better educational prospects for their children.
(d) because city life is comparatively more glamorous.
(e) this mass immigration to urban areas in the long run can prove to be detrimental.
Q4. One-day cricket matches have become immensely popular all over the world.
(a) Construction of large stadium with good facilities.
(b) Corporate giants who sponsor the event prefer one day matches because of better viewership.
(c) Cricket boards are encouraging their respective cricket teams to play matches with different competitors.
(d) As one-day cricket matches are being telecast all over the world people are able to watch them with sustained interest.
(e) Cricket, in India is like a religion, with so much fan following.
Q5. The Indian market is now flooded with a variety of world class automobiles when compared to the past when people had a limited choice.
(a) Indian roads have become comparatively better over the years.
(b) Liberalization of Indian economy is the cause for this.
(c) People have become more quality conscious.
(d) Indian roads are already clogged and Tata’s new small car is only going to add fuel to the fire.
(e) Various multi-nationals have recognized India as a country with tremendous prospects and potential.
Directions (6-10): Five alternative summaries are given below the text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.
Q6. An individual is free and autonomous only because of the collective decisions taken after democratic debate, notably those decisions that guarantee each person access to public goods such as education, health care, etc. Some sense of social solidarity may remain, but it is so abstract that those for whom the wheel of fortune has spun so favourably feel little debt. They believe that they owe their status purely to merit, not to the collective efforts-state-funded schools, universities, etc. – that enabled them to realize their potential.
(a) Individual success and autonomy are a result of the ability to exploit the system put together through collective efforts with a sense of social solidarity.
(b) The decisions that guarantee each person access to public goods are collective in nature, and individual merit is a myth.
(c) Individuals owe their success and autonomy to collective decisions and efforts that guarantee access to public goods like schools and universities.
(d) Individual success and autonomy are a result of the systems made through collective efforts that guarantee each person access to these systems.
(e) Individuals are free and autonomous only as far as they realize that they owe their success to collective decisions made with a sense of social solidarity.
Q7. Throughout history, political leaders have supported existing communication technologies in order to defend the system in which they rule. Today, too, governments may be tempted to protect newspapers and public TV on the pretext of “saving democracy as we know it.” But efforts to block technological change have been futile in the past, and they would be unwise today. Instead, the political system and the media must adapt to the new reality – the internet.
(a) Instead of trying to protect newspapers and public TV by blocking the internet, political leaders, and governments must adapt to the new reality.
(b) As they have failed in the past, political leaders and government would fail to block the internet by promoting the newspapers and public TV.
(c) Political leaders and governments have consistently failed in their efforts to block new technologies by supporting the existing ones.
(d) By supporting the newspapers and the public TV politicians and governments are trying to protect the existing media under the pretext of saving democracy.
(e) The efforts by governments and politicians to save the existing communication technologies have always proved futile; instead they must adapt to the new reality, today, the internet.
Q8. The financial and economic crisis that erupted in 2008 will, in retrospect, be regarded as a transformative moment, because it raised fundamental questions about the future shape of our economic systems. These questions are not so much about the end of capitalism-as some perceive or even desire-but rather about the different ways in which capitalism is understood in different countries.
(a) In retrospect, the economic crisis of 2008 raised fundamental questions about the future of capitalism working in different countries.
(b) In retrospect, the crisis that erupted in 2008 was not about the failure of capitalism as some see it, but about the differences between countries.
(c) In retrospect, the economic crisis of 2008 was not about the end of capitalism, but about how capitalism is understood in different countries.
(d) In retrospect, the crisis that erupted in 2008 was not fundamentally about the end of capitalism but about the future of capitalism in different countries.
(e) The economic crisis of 2008 did not signal the end of capitalism of its future but how it is understood in different countries.
Q9. Newspapers are dying; the music industry is still yelping about iTunes; book publishers think they are next. Yet one bit of old media seems to be doing rather well. In the final quarter of 2009 the average American spent almost 37 hours a week watching television. Earlier this year 116 m of them saw the Super Bowl-a record for a single programme. Far from being cowed by new media, TV is colonising it. Shows like “American Idol” and “Britain's Got Talent” draw huge audiences partly because people are constantly messaging and tweeting about them, and discussing them on Facebook.
(a) Though newspapers, the music, and publishing industries are dying, American TV has been able to draw large audiences and being discussed on the internet.
(b) Though newspapers, the music and publishing industries are dying, American TV is colonizing the media with the average American spending 37 hours per week watching television.
(c) Though newspapers, the music, and publishing industries are dying, TV is colonizing the media and has huge audiences.
(d) Newspapers, music industry, and book publishers have been cowed by the new media whereas TV has coped well and still draws large audiences, as American TV proves.
(e) Newspapers, music, and book publishers have not been able to cope with the emergence of new media but American TV has coped well and still draws large audiences.
Q10. The tragedy about data collection in India is that by the time primary data is converted into useable information, it may be too late to aid policy intervention. This is true of data collected by not just government agencies such as the National Sample Survey Organization but also think-tanks such as National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER). One of the criticisms of Human Development in India: Challenges for a Society in Transition-a report put together by NCAER and Institute of Maryland, US-is that it is based on data collected in 2004-05, and it does not capture the impact of the changes of the past four years when the economy grew at more than 8% on an average every year.
(a) Data collected by government agencies and other research organizations in India is generally useless as no reports based on the primary data is available for years-NCAER report on human development report is an example.
(b) The problem with data collection in India is that reports based on the data are not available in time for use-an NCAER report based on 2004-05 data was released four years later.
(c) The data collection in India is generally useless because reports to guide policy decisions are not made in time-an NCAER report based on 2004-05 data was released four years later.
(d) Data collected by government agencies and other research organizations in India is generally useless; an NCAER report on human development report was released four years after the data was gathered.
(e) Data collected by government agencies and other research organizations in India is generally delayed and do not guide policy decisions-NCAER is an example.
Directions (11-15): A word has been used in the in four different ways in the sentences that follow. Choose the option corresponding to the sentence in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.
A. The street was noisy with the vendors barking their wares.
B. The rhinoceros is famous for its very thick bark.
C. You seem to be barking up the wrong tree in blaming your neighbour.
D. The bark of the cinnamon tree is used as a spice.
(e) None of the above is correct usage.
A. It appears as if the ruling coalition is trying to cover the scandal.
B. The new book on the history of science covers a lot of ground.
C. I am unwilling to cover for her in the meeting.
D. The project was a cover for intelligence operations.
(e) None of the above is correct usage.
A. The policy is based on the principles that inform bilateral relations.
B. As an expert musician, he is well informed with the keyboard.
C. Compassion for fellow beings informs all her novels.
D. The Prime Minster was informed about the crisis in the party.
(e) None of the above is correct usage.
A. She gave birth last Thursday.
B. The students gave the CAT Exam last Sunday.
C. The professor freely gave of his time to the students.
D. As the time passed, optimism gave place to worry.
(e) None of the above is correct usage.
A. The throne passed to the king’s son.
B. The court passed on the legality of the wiretapping.
C. My experience of the Himalayas passed all expectations.
D. He is not the one to pass an opportunity for promotion.
(e) None of the above is correct usage.
Sol. Option D correctly explains the migration of talent from India to abroad and its consequences. Hence this sentence complements the given sentence in question.
Sol. Option C correctly explain and complement the idea expressed in the question sentence. The owners of private educational institutions are more interested in monetary gains than in imparting quality education.
Sol. In question sentence the migration of farmers/people is mentioned to the cities in search of alternative career because agriculture is not money making business anymore because of uncertainties. Hence option A correctly complement the idea expressed in the question sentence.
Sol. In the question sentence, the popularity of one-day cricket matches is mentioned and option D correctly explains the reason behind this phenomenon. One day matches are being telecasted all over the world, hence the increased popularity and viewership.
Sol. Various multi-nationals have recognized India as a country with tremendous prospects and potential. Hence the Indian market is flooded with the presence of top automobile companies and the cars.
Sol. The gist of the paragraph is: The principle social solidarity through democratic debates establishes education, healthcare etc. accessible to individuals. Individuals exploit this system (schools, universities) and become successful. But they feel that their success is due to individual merit. Option (D) summarizes this best within the constraints of a précis. Option (A) is a distortion in “exploit.” Option (B) is a distortion in “myth.” Option (D) is correct but option (C) is better as it specifies “owe their success” rather than “a result of.” Option (E) is not structured well and is vague.
Sol. Option (A) and (D) do not mention the failure in the past. Options (B) and (D) leave out the “adapt” idea. Option (E), on the other hand leave out the specifics, and captures the essential attitude of politicians and governments towards new technologies and mentions the “adapt” factor too. Option (E), hence, is the best available précis.
Sol. Option (A) is contrary to the passage. Options (B) and (D) fail to mention “economic crisis.” Option (E) distorts the idea in “did not signal the end of capitalism or its future.” Option (C) – though it does not include the perception or desire of some people to see the crisis as the end of capitalism, captures the essence without distortion.
Sol. The paragraph is not about American TV in particular – American TV is cited as example of what TV has achieved. The gist of the paragraph is: newspapers etc., are dying but far from being cowed by new media, TV is colonising it; American TV is an example. Options (A), (B), and (E) stress the American TV which is not the essence of the paragraph. Between (C) and (D), option (D) more accommodative and precise.
Sol. In addition to the other details in the passage option (C) also mentions “guide policy decisions” which makes it the preferred option. Option (E) is erroneous because it states data collection is delayed. The other options are not incorrect; they are similar but highlight different aspects of the paragraph but leaves out why reports become useless. Hence option (C) scores above them.
Sol. Sentence B can be corrected by using ‘skin’ instead of bark. In sentence A, ‘barking their wares’ means advertising with persistent outcry. In sentence C, to bark up the wrong tree (idiom) to misdirect one’s efforts, or to proceed under a misapprehension. In sentence D, bark is used as noun to refer to the outer covering of the tree stem.
Sol. The sentence can be corrected by writing ‘cover up the scandal’ rather than cover the scandal. Sentence B means ‘includes a lot of information’. Sentence C means to substitute. Sentence D means a pretext.
Sol. Sentence B will be corrected if instead of informed, acquainted is used. In sentence A, ‘inform’ is used with the specific contextual meaning: to give character or essence to something. Sentence C also has a specific contextual meaning of ‘inform’ which is: to be the characteristic quality of. In D, it has the common meaning ‘communicated the knowledge of.’
Sol. Students do not ‘give CAT; they take the CAT. (Take tests not give tests). In sentence A, gave birth is correctly used to mean ‘to have a baby.’ In C, the idiom ‘give of’ means to make available or provide generously. In D’ give place to’ means replace with or succeeded by.
Sol. This can be corrected by making it” … not the one to pass up an opportunity…” the idiom ‘pass up’ means to let go without accepting or taking advantage of. Sentence A means to go from the control of one to another. Sentence C means exceed or surpass.