Directions (1-15): Five alternative summaries are given below the text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.
Q1. The pursuit of a sustainable global society of low CO2 emitters requires a tremendous effort. Precisely for this reason, it also requires a broadly shared ethical basis. This would guide the negotiating parties in such a way that they look not only for solutions to a part of the problem, but first and foremost at a comprehensive solution to the entire problem. The climate change issue is too important to be left in the care of politicians. It is therefore imperative that not only nation states, but the business community and citizens combine their efforts to save our planet's climate. That is not only a scientific necessity; it is an ethical imperative.
(a) Since a global society of low CO2 emitters requires tremendous effort, it requires a shared ethical basis on which a comprehensive solution can emerge. It is imperative that not only politicians but business and citizens are involved to save the planet’s climate.
(b) Tremendous efforts and a shared ethical basis are required for sustainable global society of low CO2 emitters that can negotiate a comprehensive solution to climate change. It is imperative that nations and citizens work together to save the planet’s climate.
(c) The scientific and ethical imperative to find a comprehensive solution to climate change is that there are combined efforts form politicians, business and citizens to constitute a sustainable society of low CO2 emitters.
(d) A global society of low CO2 emitters requires tremendous effort, and a shared ethical basis. It is a scientific and ethical imperative that not only politicians but business and citizens are involved to save the planet’s climate.
(e) Since a global society of low CO2 emitters requires tremendous effort, it requires a shared ethical basis so that a comprehensive solution can emerge. Since politicians cannot be trusted, business and citizens must get involved in the efforts to save the planet’s climate.
Q2. If foreign institutions are to be allowed at all, it is better that they operate within an appropriate framework of regulation. If not, unscrupulous operators can use the “foreign” tag to exploit poorly informed students who do not have the scores to enter a good national institution or the finances to travel abroad to acquire a good education. In an environment where good higher educational facilities are in short supply, such operators could get away with charging high fees for courses backed by inadequately qualified faculty, inferior infrastructure and substandard equipment.
(a) If foreign universities are to be allowed, there should be regulated so that the unsuspecting poor and the low scorers are not exploited by unscrupulous operators.
(b) The operation of foreign universities must be regulated to prevent the exploitation of students by using their foreign tag to charge high fees for poor facilities.
(c) If the operation of foreign universities is not regulated they are likely to charge the students high fees using their “foreign tag” and offer poor facilities in return.
(d) If foreign universities are to be allowed, their operations must be regulated; otherwise, unscrupulous elements will use the foreign tag to charge high fees even for poor facilities.
(e) Students who have low scores and those who cannot afford to study abroad are likely to be exploited by foreign universities if these universities are allowed to operate without regulations.
Q3. Nutrition is important to ensure proper brain formation and development, which starts in the womb: development of the brain goes on during early childhood. Iodine deficiency is known to affect a child’s Intelligence Quotient (IQ) adversely. It has also been established that children with deficient growth before age two are at an increased risk of chronic disease as adults, especially if they gain weight rapidly in the later stages of childhood. A low birthweight baby, who is stunted and underweight in its infancy and gains weight rapidly in childhood and adult life, is much more prone to chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
(a) Nutrition is important not only for the formation and development of the brain in the womb, and for the intelligent quotient as a child, but also for the physical well-being in adult life.
(b) Nutrition affects brain formation and development; iodine is related to IQ. Low weight at birth and rapid weight-gain in childhood increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes in adult life.
(c) Nutrition affects a child’s brain formation and development. Lack of iodine causes low IQ, whereas low weight babies develop heart disease and diabetes in later life.
(d) Starting in the womb, nutrition affects the child’s brain formation and development. A low baby is more prone to develop cardiovascular disease and diabetes if it gains weight during childhood.
(e) Nutrition is important for brain formation and development as well as for the overall health. Iodine can affect the child’s IQ, and low weight at birth can lead to chronic conditions in adult life.
Q4. When a species evolves traits that seem to have little to do with individual survival-bright colours, say, or oversize horns, it is typically the male alone who sports these excesses. Observing this, Charles Darwin proposed the idea of “selection in relation to sex” as a follow-up to his theory of natural selection. He defined it as the struggle between members of one sex, “generally male,” to possess the other. The plumage of peacocks attracts peahens. The stag’s antlers are there to fight off other stags and so on.
(a) The plumage of peacocks and the stag’s antlers, according to Charles Darwin, have little to do with survival but are evolutionary male excesses to possess the female.
(b) Bright colours or oversize horns, according to Charles Darwin, are evolutionary excesses unrelated to individual survival but help the male in the struggle to possess the female.
(c) Charles Darwin defined the plumage of peacocks and the stag’s antlers as excesses in the struggle between members of one sex to possess the other.
(d) According to Charles Darwin, when a species evolves excesses that have nothing to do with survival they are generally male and useful to fight off the other male.
(e) In his follow up to natural selection Charles Darwin defined evolutionary excesses as having little to do with survival and more to do with male domination of the female.
Q5. Some people think sports cars are threatened with extinction by tightening restrictions on carbon-dioxide emissions and unacceptable fuel-guzzling. They fear the roar of the V8 will be replaced by the whirr of the electric armature – and that motoring will never be the same again. Well, it ought to be quieter, that is true. But they need not fear that electric cars will be slower. The secret is that electric motors are better than combustion engines. They have more oomph, and no need of a gearbox to deliver it.
(a) Contrary to what some people think sports cars will go even faster with electric power.
(b) The belief that sports cars will become extinct is a misplaced one, as cars with electric motors will go faster than combustion engines.
(c) The restrictions on carbon emissions need not make the sports cars extinct as faster electric cars will easily replace them.
(d) Contrary to popular belief that electric cars are slower, they are in fact better and faster than combustion engines.
(e) Though more noisy than the combustion engines cars with electric motors deliver more power even without a gearbox; they will replace the combustion engines.
Q6. From the beginning, the cloud hanging over the whole hydrogen enterprise has not been the power source as such, but the intractable difficulty of distributing and storing the stuff. It is not hard to see why. Hydrogen atoms are the smallest and lightest in the universe. The next heaviest element in the periodic table, the inert gas helium, is used for detecting cracks in pressure vessels and the like. Even though helium atoms are four times chunkier than hydrogen atoms, they are still small enough to find all the weak spots as they worm their way through the crystalline structure of solid steel several centimeters thick. If hydrogen were used as a crack detector, it would escape four times faster.
(a) Hydrogen enterprise is doomed to ultimate failure because hydrogen like helium can be used as a crack detector.
(b) Storing and distributing hydrogen is difficult as it is made up of the smallest and lightest atoms will leak through the weak spots even through walls several centimeters thick.
(c) Hydrogen enterprise cannot succeed as storing and distributing it is a formidable challenge because it can leak through even steel four times faster than helium.
(d) As a power source the difficulty of hydrogen enterprise is the difficulty in storing and distributing it because of its lightness.
(e) The difficulty that hydrogen enterprise faces is storing and distribution, as hydrogen atoms are the smallest and the lightest and can escape through the structure of even solid steel.
Q7. Criminals watch television too, and there is evidence they are also changing their behaviour. Most of the techniques used in crime shows are, after all, at least grounded in truth. Bleach, which destroys DNA, is now more likely to be used by murderers to cover their tracks. The wearing of gloves is more common, as is the taping shut – rather than the DNA-laden licking – of envelopes. Investigators comb crime scenes ever more finely now for new kinds of evidence, which is creating problems with the tracking and storage of evidence.
(a) Since criminals are also influenced by television shows, they change their behaviour to leave fewer traces, forcing investigators to search for new kinds of evidence.
(b) Criminals learn from television shows that bleach can destroy DNA and have learnt to cover their tracks giving rise to the need for new kinds of evidence.
(c) The problem of having to search for new kinds of evidence arises from criminals who watch television learning to cover their tracks better.
(d) Since criminals learn from television that bleach destroys DNA, wearing gloves, and taping envelopes etc., cover their tracks, investigators now look for new evidence.
(e) Since criminals are also influenced by the television shows they watch; they have learnt to cover their tracks effectively posing a problem for investigators.
Q8. Storing energy is one of the biggest obstacles to the widespread adoption of alternative sources of power. Batteries can be bulky and slow to charge. Hydrogen, which can be made electrolytically from water and used to power fuel cells, is difficult to handle. But there may be an alternative: magnesium. As school chemistry lessons show, metallic magnesium is highly reactive and stores a lot of energy. Even a small amount of magnesium ribbon burns in a flame with a satisfying white heat. Researchers are now devising ways to extract energy from magnesium in a more controlled fashion.
(a) Problems with the storage and handling of conventional energy sources have forced the researchers to turn their attention to magnesium which stores a lot of energy naturally.
(b) As hydrogen and dry cells pose great obstacles to storing energy, researchers are looking at extracting energy from magnesium which stores a lot of energy.
(c) As storing energy is a big obstacle to the adoption of alternative sources of power, researchers are looking at extracting energy from magnesium which stores a lot of energy.
(d) Researchers are devising ways to extract energy form magnesium, as magnesium stores a lot of energy compared to the bulky dry cells and hydrogen.
(e) Alternative energy researchers are now turning their attention towards magnesium which stores a lot of energy and because dry cells and hydrogen are difficult to handle.
Q9. Many preventive measures for cognitive decline and for preventing Alzheimer’s disease – mental stimulation, exercise, and a variety of dietary supplements – have been studied over the years. However, an independent panel convened this week by the National Institutes of Health determined that the value of these strategies for delaying the onset and/or reducing the severity of decline or disease hasn’t been demonstrated in rigorous studies. Alzheimer’s disease is a feared and heart-breaking disease, we wish we could tell people that taking a pill or doing a puzzle every day would prevent this terrible disease, but current evidence doesn’t support this.
(a) The National Institutes of Health has determined that the strategies for delaying, reducing the severity of Alzheimer’s disease hasn’t been demonstrated in rigorous studies.
(b) Alzheimer’s disease cannot be prevented, delayed or its severity reduced by medication or through mental exercises.
(c) There is no evidence whether Alzheimer’s disease can be prevented, delayed or its severity reduced by pills or by doing puzzles.
(d) An independent panel convened by the National Institutes of Health has determined that medication or solving puzzle does not affect Alzheimer’s disease.
(e) An independent panel convened by the National Institutes of Health has reported that it has found insufficient evidence to support preventive measures for Alzheimer’s disease.
Q10. The mass production of optical mice has made the highly sophisticated sensors on which they rely very inexpensive. Additionally, advances in electronics and optics have yielded sensors that are both small and extremely precise. A generic optical mouse, costing only a few dollars, is capable of capturing and comparing surface images several thousand times per second. Often, this high resolution enables their use on a variety of surfaces-both traditional and ad hoc (e.g., palms, pants, bed covers).
(a) Advances in electronic and optics have facilitated the use of highly sophisticated sensors for high precision, low cost, multi-surface optical tracking in generic optical mice.
(b) The mass production of optical mice has made the optical sensors inexpensive; sensors are now cheap, precise and can be used on any surface.
(c) Mass production and advances in electronics and optics have yielded sensors that are cheap, high resolution, and capable of being used on any surface.
(d) Advances in technology and mass production have made the generic optical mice capable of high precision, low cost, and multi-surface optical tracking.
(e) Advances in technology and mass production have made the generic optical mice sophisticated devices capable of being used on different surfaces.
Q11. Heating and squishing microalgae in a pressure-cooker can fast-forward the crude-oil-making process from millennia to minutes. University of Michigan professors are working to understand and improve this procedure in an effort to speed up development of affordable bio-fuels that could replace fossil fuels and power today’s engines. They are also examining the possibility of other new fuel sources such as E. coli bacteria that would feed on waste products from previous bio-oil batches.
(a) Professors at Michigan University are working to understand and improve the making of affordable bio-fuels to replace fossil fuels and then convert the waste further into fuel.
(b) University of Michigan professors are working towards pressure-cooking algae into bio-fuel and seeking to use E. coli to further convert the waste into bio-fuel.
(c) University of Michigan professors are working towards pressure-cooking algae into bio-fuel and seeking to recycle the waste into new source material for future fuel batches.
(d) University of Michigan professors are working towards converting microalgae into bio-fuel and seeking to recycle the waste into new source material for future fuel batches.
(e) None of the above
Q12. Whales seem to stir up strong feelings. For conservationists, the majestic mammals have been in urgent need of protection ever since factory ships began slaughtering them in the middle of the last century. But advocates of whaling present themselves as protectors of traditional culture, diets, and the rights of indigenous people. It is difficult to find any common ground, even when an honest attempt is made.
(a) Advocates present traditional culture, diets, and people’s rights, and conservationists cite the need for protection for and against whaling.
(b) It is difficult to find any common ground in the arguments of conservationists and advocates of whaling – except that both are emotional.
(c) Whales stir up strong feelings in conservationists as well as advocates of whaling – with valid and irreconcilable reasoning on both sides.
(d) Other than strong feelings the arguments of people who are for and against whaling are irreconcilable.
(e) None of the above
Q13. Although new battery technologies are emerging, their weight and size is likely to remain a drag on the development of electric and hybrid cars, forcing manufacturers to come up with new and inventive ways to shed weight and free up space. One solution which researchers are exploring is to build cars using a hybrid material: a carbon composite that is also capable of storing electrical energy. That way, car designers could combine structural form with electrical function.
(a) The manufacturers and designers of electric and hybrid cars are constrained by the weight and size of the batteries; hybrid material seems to be the only solution.
(b) Since manufacturers and designers are constrained by the bulkiness of the batteries, researchers are exploring hybrid material capable of storing electrical energy.
(c) By building cars with multifunction material, researchers are exploring a solution to the weight and size of batteries which are a drag on the development of electric and hybrid cars.
(d) The structural form and function of electric and hybrid cars can be the solution to the bulkiness of the batteries that constrain both the manufacturers and the designers.
(e) None of the above
Q14. The earth’s volcanoes appear for the most part in three types of setting. The most familiar, and most of the most dangerous, are found where one tectonic plate overrides another, as happens in the ring of fire around the Pacific. Then there are those which sit over isolate “hotspots” of upwelling magma from deep in the earth, like the volcanoes of Hawaii. Finally, there are those – a great many, but normally deep under the ocean – formed at the spreading ridges where tectonic plates pull away from each other and new crust is formed. Iceland is peculiarly volcanic because it is formed by the intersection of a hotspot and a mid-ocean ridge.
(a) The earth’s volcanoes exist in three settings: where one tectonic plate overrides another, over hotspots of upwelling magma, and under the oceans where plates are moving apart.
(b) There are three types of volcanoes: the most dangerous ones over the tectonic plates, over the isolated hotspots of upwelling, and on ocean beds at the ridges of tectonic plates.
(c) Volcanoes are of three types: where one tectonic plate overrides another, over hotspots of magma upwelling from within the earth, and ones at the spreading ridges where tectonic plates pull away from each other.
(d) The earth’s volcanoes appear in three types: where one tectonic plate overrides another, over hotspots of upwelling magma, and where plates are moving apart.
(e) None of the above
Q15. It sounds implausible. Roboticists have struggled for decades to understand bipedal locomotion, and even today’s most sophisticated robots require huge amounts of energy and computer power to walk on two legs. But Dr Herr's credentials are sound. He is a leading authority on the biomechanics of legs, and in the past decade he has made several advances in the development of artificial legs and assistive walking devices, or “orthoses,” enabling amputees to walk with a more natural gait than was previously possible.
(a) It is an unbelievable task that Dr. Herr has achieved in developing assistive walking devices, or “orthoses”; roboticists are still far away from understanding bipedal locomotion.
(b) Even when robots consume huge computing power and energy to walk, Dr Herr’s “orthoses,” enable amputees to walk with a more natural gait.
(c) Dr Herr’s “orthoses” or assistive devices for amputees challenge the roboticists who have failed to simulate bipedal motion without consuming huge computer power and energy.
(d) Dr Herr has been successful in developing “orthoses” enabling amputees to walk with a natural gait; even sophisticated robots haven’t come close to natural bipedal locomotion.
(e) None of the above
Sol. The following are the highlights of the paragraph: … sustainable global society of low CO2 emitters requires a tremendous effort. … shared ethical basis. …a comprehensive solution … politicians. … Nation states … business community and citizens …scientific necessity; it is an ethical imperative. Except for not specifying the politicians, business etc. Option (B) captures everything (it states nations and citizens – which can accommodate all). The other options on careful examination can be seen to distort something or the other.
Sol. Option (A) has the vague “poor” in it. Option (B) misses out the “if they are to be allowed part” which is significant to the précis. Option (C) states “they are likely to charge” – the paragraph mentions only the unscrupulous elements may do this. Option (E) assumes only students with low scores etc., will go to these universities. Option (D) is the best choice, with the least problems.
Sol. The paragraph is about how nutrition is important for child’s mental and physical wellbeing – this begins in the womb, and continues into adult life. This essence is captured by option (A). The other options highlight the specifics of the paragraph. Though not incorrect, they struggle to include the details and miss the “essence” of the paragraph.
Sol. Options (A) and (C) specifically explain the plumage of peacocks and the stag’s antlers – these are examples for bright colours or oversize horns and such other traits. Hence, though correct the purpose of the paragraph is general. Option (D) is also alright except that it does not specify why the males fight. Option (E) is incorrect in “male domination of the female.”
Sol. Only option (C) mentions “restrictions on carbon emissions” and includes what other options elaborate on.
Sol. “ultimate failure” eliminates option (A). No mention of “hydrogen enterprise” eliminates option (B). “cannot succeed” eliminates option (C). Option (D) in comparison to (E) does not explain “lightness.” Option (E) is brief and to the point.
Sol. The main points are Criminals watch television … changing their behaviour … (examples) cover their tracks … for new kinds of evidence … problems with the tracking and storage of evidence. The last point is not mentioned in any of the options. Option (A) has these points and does not distort any of the points. Option (B) emphasizes bleach etc., rather than the gist. Option (C) is correct but loses out top option (A) because of phrasing – option (A) is better phrased. Option (D) is similar to option (B). Option (E) does not specify the problem. In comparison, option (A) is the best.
Sol. Option (A) completely misses the point in “conventional sources” – the paragraph is about “alternative sources.” Option (B) is correct but emphasizes the problem with hydrogen and dry cells whereas the first sentence states the problem explicitly as storing – hydrogen and dry cells are examples. Option (D) misses the “alternative energy” part. Option (E) “difficult to handle” is vague; and the emphasis has shifted as in option (B).
Sol. Option (A), (B) and (C) are either erroneous or incomplete as they omit the independent panel. Between option (D) and (E), it is an easy choice in favour of option (E) as option (D) is too general and vague.
Sol. Option (A) misses mass production. Option (B) misses “advances in technology.” Option (C) confuses sensors with mice. Option (D) does not distort the message. Option (E) misses high resolution, inexpensive etc.
Sol. Option (A) does not mention the microalgae part. Option (B) is unnecessarily specific about E. coli-the paragraph states “such as E. coli bacteria.” Option (D) is correct but does not tell us how the algae can be converted into bio fuel which option (C) does. Option (C) best captures the essence.
Sol. Option (C) is closes to the given paragraph. Option (A) leaves out the feelings part which is central to the paragraph. Option (B) is a miscommunication. The paragraph talks about strong feelings forestalling a compromise – the purpose is not to suggest that they are merely emotional. Option (D) is meaningless – one cannot make sense of it, especially in the light of the paragraph.
Sol. Option (B) would have been the best option if it had mentioned “hybrid material to build cars.” As it stands the summary states they are exploring hybrid material which is incomplete. “…only solution” eliminates option (A). Option (D) is a sadly inadequate précis and unclear.
Sol. According to the paragraph volcanoes exist in three settings; there is no need to interpret this as three types of volcanoes – there may even be many types within these settings. Though the other options are not as concise as option (A), they also have other deficiencies missing out on important part like under the ocean etc. Option (A) captures the essence of the paragraph.
Sol. Option (A) states “far away from understanding bipedal locomotion” – it is the computing power and energy that are the issues, hence this is a distortion. Option (C) is eliminated because of “challenge the roboticists…” which is incorrect. Between options (B) and (D), option (D) scores over (B) only for the reason that “even sophisticated robots haven’t come close to natural bipedal locomotion” is better than “robots consume huge computing power and energy to walk” in the light of the purpose of the paragraph – the energy factor only reinforces the difficulty of mastering “natural bipedal locomotion.”